BLANC - Blanc

La mixité des formes organisationnelles au sein des réseaux de franchise, ses antécédents et ses conséquences en termes de management et de performance – FRANMIX

Submission summary

Franchising is widely used in most countries of the world, developed ones and emerging ones. France occupies a strong position at the European level and also at the international level. The latest figures provided by the French Federation of Franchising indicate that there were 1,037 franchising networks and 43,680 franchised units in the French territory in 2006. Moreover, franchising generated about 45 billion euros in this year. These figures and their evolution highlight the growing importance of franchising and its current power in the French economy. This is one of the reasons why it is so important and relevant for the researchers to focus on this particular topic. Researchers from various fields: marketing, entrepreneurship, economics, strategic management, etc. have enriched the franchising literature (Combs et al., 2004). Their approaches have been mostly grounded on the agency theory and the resource scarcity theory. The researchers have mainly focused on the reasons for franchising (Oxenfeldt & Kelly, 1968; Caves & Murphy, 1976; Norton, 1988; Dant et al., 1996), the failure rates of the franchised stores compared to the independent stores (Castrogiovanni et al., 1993; Stern & Stanworth, 1994; Bates, 1995a; 1995b; Stanworth et al., 1998). Other research streams in franchising concern the franchisor/franchisee relationship (Brown & Dev, 1997; Pizanti & Lerner, 2003), the network internationalization (Eroglu, 1992; Huszagh et al., 1992; McIntyre & Huszagh, 1995) and for about ten years, the plural form, i.e. the combination of franchising and company ownership within a same franchising network (Bradach, 1997; 1998; Cliquet, 2000a ; 2000b; Dant & Kaufman, 2003). This is in this last direction, i.e. the plural form, that we want to orientate our research project. Indeed, this is a specific mutation that has occurred within the franchising networks. This literature about plural form is relatively impressive considering its relative recent vintage. Indeed, the plural form concept has been studied in detail for only a handful of years. Nevertheless, previous research is generally exploratory and limited to one industry (often the fast food industry) or one element of management (innovation, survival, brand image, etc.). The general objective of this research program is to examine in details the emergence of the plural form. This mutation has also multiple consequences on the management of the franchising network to be studied. Our aim is to identify the antecedents of the plural form, the changes and the domains (marketing, human resources management, control, governance, etc.) affected by the evolution toward the plural form, and its impact on the network performance. The methodology that will be used to explore the consequences of the plural form on each element of the network management and on the network management as a whole will include two complementary approaches: a qualitative approach in an exploratory perspective (about 50 interviews with franchisors, and 50 interviews with franchisees and managers of company-owned units) and a quantitative one in a confirmatory perspective (about 1,000 questionnaires to be sent to the franchisors, and about 10,000 questionnaires to be sent to the franchisees). The expected results of such a research project consist in finding some elements of response at the following questions: - What are the antecedents of the plural form? - What are the contributions of the plural form for the network management? On the one hand, individually, at the level of each feature of the network management: marketing, human resources management, finance, audit, etc.? It will deal with questions such as the following ones: Does the plural form favour brand uniformity? Does the plural form favour the price uniformity? Does the plural form favour the knowledge management? What are the control modes in plural form networks?etc. And, on the other hand, globally, at the level of the network management as a whole. What are the governance models in plural form networks? Finally, does the plural form significantly and positively influence the performance of the network, and more specifically, in terms of efficiency? - Is there any maximal rate of plural form it is dangerous to exceed, either for reasons of too high pressures on the franchisees (kind of foil vis-à-vis the franchisees), or for reasons of risk of re-qualification of the contract (kind of salary subordination)?

Project coordination

Rozenn PERRIGOT (Université)

The author of this summary is the project coordinator, who is responsible for the content of this summary. The ANR declines any responsibility as for its contents.


Help of the ANR 223,162 euros
Beginning and duration of the scientific project: - 36 Months

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