CE38 - Révolution numérique : rapports au savoir et à la culture

Artificial Intelligence in Science and R&D: Applications and Implications – scientIA

Submission summary

Associated with the deluge of big data, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has gradually moved out of the fields where it sprung from - computer science and mathematics - to spread to all areas of scientific and industrial research.
Introduced as an exogenous research technology, AI reshaped the scientific "adjacent possible", extending the set of potential discoveries and innovations that are reachable within the available knowledge boundaries. This sudden expansion of the epistemic horizon produced, in the last decade, major advances in several research areas.
Because science is a complex interconnected system, one cannot fully understand the epistemic impact of AI without focusing on the related transformations of the scientific practices (working practices, politics of research, etc.) and the cognitive schemes, along with the unavoidable associated controversies.
This project stands on a robust interdisciplinary framework combining computational tools (network science, complex systems methods, AI techniques, modelling, etc.) and social science methodologies (surveys and qualitative interviews). ScientIA aims to analyze, with a comparative perspective, the impact and the implications of the introduction of AI in academic and industrial research. We will study the introduction of AI in these ecosystems of applied or basic research, with a multifaceted approach linking together the epistemic transformations that AI induced, the epistemological fractures it generated, the related renewal of the scientific practices, and the large-scale societal perception.
The project revolves around three questions:
(Q1) What mechanisms favoured the spreading of AI in different research areas, and what feedback had this spreading on AI?
(Q2) Has the entrance of AI in science and R&D had significant consequences on scientific cultures and scientific practices?
(Q3) What is the social acceptance of the ever-increasing use of AI in science and technology?
These research questions are addressed through four scientific working packages having the following objectives:
(WP2) Identifying entrance patterns of AI in the selected case studies, going from identifying the diffusion drivers to the in-depth analysis of the most important AI tools mobilized and created in each case study (Q1).
(WP3) Exploring the impact of AI on epistemic innovation in the scientific ecosystem and predicting its future evolution (Q2).
(WP4) Exploring the impact of AI on the scientific practices and epistemological structures (Q2).
(WP5) Analysing AI technologies' public image of its evolution (Q3).

The interdisciplinary consortium of ScientIA will develop an innovative research framework on AI, filling the large gap between scientometric studies, attesting the growth of AI-based scientific research, and the general analyses of AI's impact on society.
Starting from the analysis of the innovation patterns related to the introduction of AI in research, ScientIA is, more generally, an original contribution to understanding the transformations of science and technology in the era of the digital revolution.
The outcomes of this project will also bring significant benefits for the industrial sector, showing which research investment in AI technology will be needed to sync with the market of future innovation.

Project coordination

Floriana Gargiulo (Groupe d'étude des méthodes de l'analyse sociologique de la Sorbonne)

The author of this summary is the project coordinator, who is responsible for the content of this summary. The ANR declines any responsibility as for its contents.

Partner

LIP6 LIP6
Sony CSL Sony France, succursale de Sony Europe BV / Sony CSL Paris
GEMASS Groupe d'étude des méthodes de l'analyse sociologique de la Sorbonne
CIS Centre Internet et Société

Help of the ANR 559,361 euros
Beginning and duration of the scientific project: December 2021 - 48 Months

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