CE23 - Intelligence artificielle

Constrained Semantic Web of Things – CoSWoT

CoSWoT

Constrained Semantic Web of Things

General Objectives and Main Issues Raised

The Internet of Things connects physical devices offering sensing or actuating with their vicinity. The ever-growing capabilities of devices allow to imagine new architectures including them as first class citizens. New added-value applications can then be envisioned in smart agriculture, smart buildings, smart cities, energy and water management, e-health and ageing well. The Web of Things (WoT) allows to describe the devices semantics, bridging the gap between the different domain and service descriptions. In today WoT architectures, physical devices can be located at distance from systems that perform reasoning. A centralised approach does not take advantage of the devices capabilities and induces suboptimal data transfers as well as server overload. Besides, many devices are now smart enough to discover each other, exchange data, and collectively make decisions. CoSWoT objectives are to propose a distributed WoT-enabled software architecture embedded on constrained devices with two main characteristics: <br /> <br />it will use ontologies to specify declaratively the application logic of devices and the semantics of the exchanged messages; <br />it will add reasoning functionalities to devices, so as to distribute processing tasks among them. Doing so, the development of applications including devices of the WoT will be highly simplified: our platform will enable the development and execution of intelligent and decentralised smart WoT applications despite the heterogeneity of devices.

In CoSWoT, WoT applications will rely on a platform hosting the base services. Besides traditional services, it will host extensions that correspond to two scientific barriers:
(1) the use of ontologies as a generalised model for exchanges between heterogeneous devices. A joint statement from AIOTI WG3, IEEE P2413, oneM2M, W3C positions ontologies as key enablers for semantic interoperability on the WoT. However research questions remain concerning (i) the adequation of existing ontologies to the target application domains; (ii) the applicability of theoretical principles developed in a variety of protocols and standards, in the context of data streams; (iii) the discovery of heterogeneous devices, their services and how to solicit them.
(2) distributed and embedded incremental reasoning. Devices become powerful enough to offer storage and processing; new architectures appear, based on edge computing including devices such as sensors and actuators. The data streams provided by sensors require to perform incremental reasoning tasks. Research questions remain on (i) how to embed reasoning in devices with various capacities, it requires specific optimisations; (ii) how to efficiently distribute reasoning tasks among devices.

On interoperability, our results are: (1) a state of the art on ontologies, projects and standards for the semantic interoperability in the Web of Things, (2) beginning of the development of a CoSWoT data knowledge graph, where will be published the compilation of knowledges related to the CoSWoT project, (3) organization of a hackathon during 3 days including CoSWoT project members, students ICM of Ecole des Mines Saint Etienne and ISTP.
On reasoning, the results are: (1) state of the art on embedded and distributed reasoning (published), (2 design of the API of an embedded inference processor for constrained objects, (3) first implementation of this processor and first optimizations to allow incremental and constrained reasoning.
About the execution platform, results are: (1) state of the art on systems and architectures in the Web of Things with applications to e-agriculture and smart building, (2) evaluation of development frameworks for servients compatible with the W3C recommendation on WoT, (3) proposition of a first architecture for a CoSWoT servient, (4) first development of the platform backend with the framework Eclipse ThingWeb node-wot for a workflow to semantize sensors data streams (temperature, humidity, concentration) for its storage in an rdf store with or without reasoning. Illustration with LIRIS building data.
On use cases and experimentations, the results are: (1) design and redaction of use cases for smart building and e-agriculture, (2) on platform Territoire : handling the legacy building installation, preparation for the deployment of heterogeneous sensors and actioners. (3) on the campus LyonTech La Doua smart buildings: definition of use cases, (4) on Montoldre experimental farm: definition of use cases, network architecture defined, development of first sensors prototypes.

continue with the project

• Francesco Antoniazzi, Ghislain Atemezing, Fabien Badeig, Mahdi Bennara, Stephan Bernard, Pierre-Antoine Champin, Jean-Pierre Chanet, Christophe Gravier, Yann Gripay, Frédérique Laforest, Maxime Lefrançois, Lionel Médini, Laure Moiroux, Catherine Roussey, Sylvie Servigne, Kamal Singh, Julien Subercaze, Antoine Zimmermann, “Interoperabilité et raisonnement dans le Web Sémantique des objets: le projet CoSWoT”, Journées francophones d’Ingénierie des Connaissances (IC), July 2020, Angers, France. HAL
• Alexandre Bento, Lionel Médini, Kamal Singh, Frédérique Laforest, “Raisonnement embarqué et distribué pour le Web des Objets : un état de l’art”, Ingénierie des Connaissances - Plate-Forme Intelligence Artificielle (IC/PFIA), Bordeaux, France, 28 Juin - 2 Juillet 2021.
• article l’mtech, decembre 2019 blogrecherche.wp.imt.fr/2019/12/11/le-petit-larousse-des-objets-connectes/
• 7 Juillet 2021, présentation au GT ROCED du GDR Madics par Alexandre Bento
• 8 Décembre 2020: Poster à International Forum of Agricultural Robotic (FIRA 2020), Dec 2020, Virtual event, France.
• 30 Juin 2020, journée IoT et IA’, PFIA, F. Laforest
• Gyrard A., Atemezing G., Serrano M. (2021) PerfectO: An Online Toolkit for Improving Quality, Accessibility, and Classification of Domain-Based Ontologies. In: Pandey R., Paprzycki M., Srivastava N., Bhalla S., Wasielewska-Michniewska K. (eds) Semantic IoT: Theory and Applications. Studies in Computational Intelligence, vol 941. Springer, Cham. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-64619-6_7
• Maxime Lefrançois, «Smart Building and IA: collaborative projects at MINES Saint-Étienne«, in www.tenerrdis.fr/uploads/2021/03/smart-grids-in-auvergne-rhone-alpes-detailed-programme-2021-03-17-1.pdf
• Maxime Lefrançois «Cadre de développement de l'ontologie modulaire et versionnée ETSI SAREF«, EGC-AFIA, 2021 jtegcafia2021.sciencesconf.org/resource/page/id/3

The Internet of Things connects physical devices offering sensing or actuating with their vicinity. The ever-growing capabilities of devices allow to imagine new architectures including them as first class citizens. New added-value applications can then be envisioned in smart agriculture, smart buildings, smart cities, energy and water management, e-health and ageing well... The Web of Things (WoT) allows to describe the devices semantics, bridging the gap between the different domain and service descriptions. In today WoT architectures, physical devices can be located at distance from systems that perform reasoning. A centralised approach does not take advantage of the devices capabilities and induces suboptimal data transfers as well as server overload. Besides, many devices are now smart enough to discover each other, exchange data, and collectively make decisions.

CoSWoT objectives are to propose a distributed WoT-enabled software architecture embedded on constrained devices with two main characteristics: (1) it will use ontologies to specify declaratively the application logic of devices and the semantics of the exchanged messages; (2) it will add reasoning functionalities to devices, so as to distribute processing tasks among them. Doing so, the development of applications including devices of the WoT will be highly simplified: our platform will enable the development and execution of intelligent and decentralised smart WoT applications despite the heterogeneity of devices.

In CoSWoT, WoT applications will rely on a platform hosting the base services. Besides traditional services, it will host extensions that correspond to two scientific barriers:
(1) the use of ontologies as a generalised model for exchanges between heterogeneous devices. A joint statement from AIOTI WG3, IEEE P2413, oneM2M, W3C positions ontologies as key enablers for semantic interoperability on the WoT. However research questions remain concerning (i) the adequation of existing ontologies to the target application domains; (ii) the applicability of theoretical principles developed in a variety of protocols and standards, in the context of data streams; (iii) the discovery of heterogeneous devices, their services and how to solicit them.
(2) distributed and embedded incremental reasoning. Devices become powerful enough to offer storage and processing; new architectures appear, based on edge computing including devices such as sensors and actuators. The data streams provided by sensors require to perform incremental reasoning tasks. Research questions remain on (i) how to embed reasoning in devices with various capacities, it requires specific optimisations; (ii) how to efficiently distribute reasoning tasks among devices.
Smart agriculture is a typical application domain of such WoT architectures, where the surveillance of cultivated fields requires various sensors that push streaming data, which must be collected and reasoned upon to take decisions executed by actuators. Smart buildings is another such typical application domain where added-value application services involve other verticals such as energy management, e-health, or ageing well. We will define use cases and requirements for smart agriculture and smart buildings, run simulations, and then lead real experiments.
The CoSWoT platform will foster the decoupling of the development of software and the development of hardware, so as to ease the emergence of a new economic sector in the digital industry around WoT applications development, disconnected from the development of the smart devices themselves.

Project coordinator

Madame Frédérique LAFOREST (UMR 5205 - LABORATOIRE D'INFORMATIQUE EN IMAGE ET SYSTEMES D'INFORMATION)

The author of this summary is the project coordinator, who is responsible for the content of this summary. The ANR declines any responsibility as for its contents.

Partner

ARMINES (FAYOL) ARMINES
Mondeca MONDECA
UJM/LaHC Laboratoire Hubert Curien
TSCF-IRSTEA TECHNOLOGIES ET SYSTEMES D'INFORMATION POUR LES AGROSYSTEMES
LIRIS UMR 5205 - LABORATOIRE D'INFORMATIQUE EN IMAGE ET SYSTEMES D'INFORMATION

Help of the ANR 734,476 euros
Beginning and duration of the scientific project: February 2020 - 48 Months

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