VBD - Villes et Bâtiments Durables

Energy Integration of Systems and building Envelops : Development of a methodology and a numerical tool for optimizing the global performance – INTENSE

Optimized building design integrating energy efficiency, comfort, economic and environmental performances over the entire life cycle

High energy efficiency buildings implement many different ways to reduce needs, increasing at the same time their energy production from renewable sources. Hence, their design requires achieving multicriteria optimization taking into account the life cycle and the financial costs. The traditional step by step design approaches (sobriety, efficacy, renewable energies) are actually substituted by global approaches that aim taking into account the complexity of the entire problem in a holistic way.

Development of genetic algorithms coupled to surrogate based optimization using kriging based approximation for building design purposes.

The buildings of the future will be energy producers and therefore will aim to maximize the value of different renewable sources to meet the energy needs regarding the building-related industry and the occupant’s comfort. Management of the various energy sources and storage of the produced energy, coupled to occupant’s comfort in highly insulated buildings should be optimized during the design procedure. This is also the case of environmental and financial criteria that cannot be overlooked and neglected. Hence, the concept of energy integration integrates this will to search the energy efficiency in a holistic approach. The INTENSE project will conceive a methodology that will be implemented in a computer tool addressed to designers (architects and consultants) and researchers developing mainly original control and monitoring systems. <br /> <br />Energy integration regarding systems and envelopes is an extremely complex problem of multicriteria optimization that has never been dealt in a holistic manner, such as the INTENSE project approach: <br />- Sophisticated dynamic modeling should take into account the behavior of all energy systems and building envelope’s compositions. <br />- Perform a Multi life Global Optimization: Life Cycle Analysis, comfort (thermal and visual), energy and cost of the project. <br />The number of possible combinations that conjugate locally available sources, systems and the envelope’s possible characteristics is very important. The optimization method used is based on genetic algorithms, because of the difficulty concerning the definition of a global optimum. Hence, a variety of possible configurations will be simulated over long periods. Then, we will implement specific optimization methods involving substitution models (kriging) to reduce the computation time. The robust optimization to address the uncertainty will also be discussed in the framework of the project. <br />

The state of the art (task 1) will assist in the implementation of the methodology for energy integration (Task 2), including the choice of different configurations selected for systems and building envelopes. Associated models will be developed in Task 3. Task 4 will concern the development of different performance functions. These tasks will lead to the development (Task 5) of the energy integration tool (OIE) which will be tested and validated on a residential building. Each of these tasks will be associated one or more deliverables, provided at predefined dates

LOCIE thesis (co-supervised LGCB) will develop and implement within the OIE the energy integration methodology for systems and the building envelope, in close collaboration with other partners. Concerning the envelope, the thesis will be based on a Post-Doc at LGCB to take into account the lighting and the role of the occupant in the setting of the control systems. The thesis of course rely on the computer developments of the OIE (subcontracting under G2ELAB) that will make the link between simulation tools (LOCIE, LGCB CEA), optimization tools and decision making (G2ELAB: Post-doc and subcontracting), and LCA tools (ARMINES). Given the diversity of energy systems, the CEA will contribute to the development of multifunctional systems and solar combisystems models.The CEA will be closely involved in the optimization methodology.

• Participation in ANNEX 31 of IEA (ECES) “Energy Storage with Efficient Energy Buildings and Districts: Optimization and Automation”: responsibility for the Task B (Optimization) entitled “Optimization: methodologies and tools to optimize the total performance (energy, environmental, and economical) of whole systems”
• Organization of a Workshop (17 June) on the total optimization of the buildings during the Conference IBPC (International Building Physics Conference, 14-17 June 2015, Torino, Italy).
• Participation in a collective work: “Technical of optimization”, chapter of the book “Use of the tools for energy simulation of the buildings” realized under the direction of B. Peuportier, École Des Mines de Paris

• Definition of the general methodology integrating optimization, dynamic simulation, kriging models and uncertainties for the multi-objective optimization of building design. The coupling of the software was carried out between TRNSYS (Simulation) and MATLAB (optimization, krigeage, uncertainties).
• Optimization related to the life cycle: the tools COMFIE (LCA) and NovaEquer (ACV), already chained, are used. The objective being to automate the management of simulations, calculations are coupled with the software R.
• Case Study: modeling of a collective housing unit of dwelling. Alternatives were proposed for the systems and the envelope. These various cases will be optimized.
• The various tools must be able to be integrated into the final tool for optimization. Solutions of interoperability between various software are tested in theCADES environment.

• Poster : I. Axaopoulos, J. Silva, G. Fraisse, B. Souyri, S. Rouchier. Développement d'une méthodologie et d'un outil de conception optimisant la performance énergétique globale des systèmes et de l'enveloppe des bâtiments. Poster. Journées Nationales s

Within the framework of the INTENSE project, we develop a methodology and evolutionary computer tools dedicated to the energy integration of the building (energy envelope and systems) thanks to the coupling of tools for dynamic simulation, of multi-criteria optimization (genetic algorithms), of the life cycle analysis and decision making aid. We will treat the problems of interworking between software during the development of the Energy Tool for Integration (OIE).

The objective of the project is to define methodology and to work out OIE leading to the best overall performance defined with a multi-criteria approach (LCA, comfort, energy and financial) by considering the complete lifetime of the building. From the whole of the possible combinations, the OIE will allow the research departments and architects to define a set of optimal solutions of systems and envelope characteristic (only the geometry is supposed to be known) having the best total efficiency by taking account of the sources and energy needs. The tool of decision-making aid will make it possible to the decision maker to make a choice in all full knowledge of the facts. The OIE will also give the opportunity of optimizing with a very standard comprehensive approach of system innovating or products for building developed by the laboratories and companies.

We will base ourselves on a dynamic modelling allowing taking into account significant factors like control and the interaction between the occupant and the building. The method will make it possible simultaneously to consider all the combinations of systems and envelope characteristic selected. The problem of optimization is extremely complex of share the diversity of the possible solutions, of the many interactions (systems, envelope, outside, occupants), amongst criteria and of the temporal scale (several decades). In order to limit the computing times, we will carry out studies of sensitivity on complexity of the models while the methods of optimization will be adapted. The technique of the micro genetic algorithms will be thus considered. The scientific bolts are primarily of methodology.

The OIE developed will make it possible to satisfy the energy needs of the occupants (heat, cooling, and electricity) by using the best possible combination between the sources available locally, the possible systems and the composition of the building envelope, in interaction with the occupant and the external environment. Knowing that it is not possible to treat over the duration of the project all these configurations, the OIE will be evolutionary (new models of systems and envelopes). We will illustrate the advantage of the tool through a case of study (apartment building of dwelling).

This kind of tool optimizing the design of the building with a comprehensive approach and “fine” modelling does not exist for the moment. The OIE is based on a rather general methodology, since it can be applied to projects in phase of draft with degraded models, and on buildings as well of the tertiary sector as residential.

The usual approach of design (sobriety, effectiveness and renewable energies) is not sufficient in the case of the buildings of the future which will be “positive energy”. It becomes essential to optimize the effectiveness with a comprehensive approach and multi-criteria, knowing that embodied energy becomes an important part of consumption. The currently available tools are only bricks of the complete approach of energy integration suggested in INTENSE.

A new task of the International Energy Agency is in the course of assembly on the topic of energy integration. This task is carried by F. Haghighat of the Concordia University. The INTENSE project will be the occasion for two of the partners to take part directly in this task and to contribute to its operation.

Project coordinator

Monsieur Gilles FRAISSE (Laboratoire Optimisation de la Conception et Ingénierie de l'Environnemnt) – fraisse@univ-savoie.fr

The author of this summary is the project coordinator, who is responsible for the content of this summary. The ANR declines any responsibility as for its contents.

Partner

ALBEDO ALBEDO
FAURE FAURE
CEA-INES Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives
ENSE3 G2ELAB
LGCB Laboratoire Génie Civil et Bâtiment
ARMINES CES ARMINES Centre Efficacité énergétique des Systèmes de Mines ParisTech
LOCIE Laboratoire Optimisation de la Conception et Ingénierie de l'Environnemnt

Help of the ANR 894,480 euros
Beginning and duration of the scientific project: December 2013 - 48 Months

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