Blanc SIMI 4 - Blanc - SIMI 4 - Physique des milieux condensés et dilués

Properties of planets and exoplanets in the laboratory – PlanetLab


planets in laboratory

Iron and silicates properties for explanatory modelling

Use ab initio simulations based on density functional theory and validates against laser and diamond anvil cell experiment using XANES spectroscopy to calculate the phase diagrams of iron alloys and complexes silicates needed for the modelling of earth like exoplanets.

--ab initio simulations
-XANES in static and laser based shock experiments

--Theoretical and experimental demonstration of the complex structure of liquid silicates at planetary core conditions
--Complete ab initio EOS including melting for Fe, MgSiO3, MgO and SiO2
--EOS measurements for SiO2 close to saturn core conditions at LIL
--Mesurement of the high pressure melting curve of Iron using laser shock and XANES spectroscopy

Interior structure of earth-like exoplanets

1. J. Bouchet, S. Mazevet, G. Morard, F. Guyot «Ab initio equation of state of iron up to 1500GPa« Phys. Rev. B, 87 094102 (2013).

2. A. Benuzzi, S. Mazevet, A. Ravasio, et al, «Progress in Warm Dense Matter study with applications to planetology« Physica Scripta T161, 014060 (2014).

3. S. Mazevet, V. Recoules, J. Bouchet, A. Ravasio, A. Benuzzi, F. Guyot, M. Harmand, «Ab initio X-ray absorption of iron up to 3Mbar and 8000K«, Phys. Rev. B 89, 100103 (2014).

4. A. Denoeud, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, A. Ravasio, F. Dorchies, P.M. Leguay,J. Gaudin, F. Guyot, E. Brambrink, M. Koenig, S. Le Pape, and S. Mazevet, «Metallization of warm dense SiO2 studied by XANES spectroscopy« Phys. Rev. Lett 113, 116404 (2014).

5. Morard, G., Andrault, D., Antonangeli, D., Bouchet J. “Properties of iron alloys under Earth’s core conditions”, Compte Rendus Acad. Sciences Géosciences, 346, 5-6, 130-139 (2014).

6. G. Morard, G. Garbarino, D. Antonangeli, D. Andrault, N. Guignot, J. Siebert, M. Roberge, E. Boulard, A. Lincot, A. Denoeud and S. Petitgirard 2014. Density measurements and structural properties of liquid and amorphous metals under high pressure. High Press. Res., 2014, 34, 1, 9-21.

7. S. Mazevet, T. Tsuchyia, T. Taniuchi, A. Benuzzi, F. Guyot, «Melting and metallization of silica in the cores of gas giants, ice giants and super Earths«, Phys. Rev. B 92, 014105 (2015).

8. M. Harmand, A. Ravasio, S. Mazevet et al., «Melting of iron close to Earth’s inner core boundary conditions detected by XANES spectroscopy in laser shock experiment », Phys. Rev. B 92, 024108 (2015).

9. A. Denoeud, G. Morard, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, H. Uranishi, Y. Kondo, R. Kodama, E. Brambrink, A. Ravasio, M. Harmand, F. Guyot, M. Koenig and N. Osaki (2015) “Dynamic X-ray diffraction observation of shocked solid iron up to 180 GPa”. Proc. Nat. Ac. Sc., Under Review.

The PLanetLab project assembles a world recognized team in the area of matter under extreme conditions to study the properties of metallic alloys and complex silicates at conditions encountered in Earth-like planets as well as in the core of giant planets and exoplanets. More than 700 exoplanets have been discovered as of today and the detection of Earth like exoplanets has just been announced. While the number of exoplanets detected is growing at an incredible pace so as to make them a new class of astrophysical objects, the physical properties required for modeling their interiors are currently lacking. As these planets are most of the time significantly larger than the ones found in the solar system, there is now an urgent need to characterize the physical properties of key compounds of geophysical interest at pressure-temperature conditions reaching several tens of Mbar and temperature up to a few eV. As of today no accepted model exists for the structure of the possible Earth-like candidates or the equation of states used as input in these models. While the variety of situations where one can find an exoplanet greatly affects the interpretation of its structure and complexifies accordingly its modeling, there is actually a great need to establish benchmarking values for the equations of states, melting curves and the transport properties in the Fe-Si-Mg-O-S complex system anticipated in these objects. This will also greatly impact the modeling of giant planet and exoplanet inner cores that are currently based on ill-defined silicates equation of states and high pressure melting curves.
To reach this goal, the team will apply first principle simulations based on density functional theory to calculate the phase diagrams and associated physical properties for simple silicates and oxides (SiO2, MgSiO3, MgO) and iron alloys (Fe-S, Fe-Si, Fe-O). While extremely demanding in resources, the continuing increase in computational power available renders possible these calculations using current large scale computing facilities (GENCI and PRACE). The first two partners, including the PI of the project, are co-developers of the electronic structure code Abinit. They have an extended experience at both developing algorithms and applying them at describing the properties of matter at extreme conditions and using large scale computing facilities. They will also develop an innovative method coupling classical and ab initio simulations to calculate the thermodynamical and transport properties of multi-components compounds. The aim is to complete the studies on binary iron alloys, oxides, and silicates by calculating the melting curves of complexes (Fe,Si,O,S) metals, the melting/metallization/dissociation of complex silicates (Mg,Fe)SiO3,
The strength of the current proposal is to extend the ab initio simulations in the regime relevant to exoplanet modeling after a careful validation against both static and dynamical experiments. Partners 3 and 4 are recognized leaders in, respectively, static measurements of high pressures properties using diamond anvil cell (DAC) coupled to synchrotron radiation and dynamics measurements using high energy lasers. Partner 3 will focus on high-pressure equations of state and high pressures melting curves of binary alloys and simple oxides and silicates (Fe-S), (Fe-Si) , (Fe-O), MgO, SiO2, MgSiO3. Partner 4 will focus on characterizing melting of iron-based alloys and melting/metallization/dissociation of silicate compounds at high pressure and temperature by performing simultaneous XANES (X-ray near edge spectroscopy) and reflectivity measurements using high energy lasers.This work will establish for the first time accurate EOS and transport properties of key planetary constituents. New mass-radius relationship for exoplanets will be established using a 1-D planetary modeling.

Project coordination

Stephane MAZEVET (Laboratoire Univers et Théorie, UMR8102, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot) –

The author of this summary is the project coordinator, who is responsible for the content of this summary. The ANR declines any responsibility as for its contents.


LULI Laboratoire pour l'utilisation des lasers intenses
CEA Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives
CNRS IMPMC CNRS Institut des matériaux et de la physique des milieux condensés
CEA direction des applications militaires
LULI Délégation régionale IDF SUD
LUTH Laboratoire Univers et Théorie, UMR8102, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot

Help of the ANR 380,363 euros
Beginning and duration of the scientific project: September 2012 - 48 Months

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