Sustainability of urban agricultures in the Mediteranean area – DAUME
AGRICULTURE AND THE CITY IN THE MEDITERRANEAN: DIVIDE OR INCLUSION?
Knowing and framing urban agriculture in five Mediterranean city-regions
World urbanization is a global trend that transforms the place of agriculture in the contemporary societies. In the Mediterranean, the urban pressure on coastal plains threatens the most productive farmlands. The goal of the DAUME project is to characterize urban agriculture in the Mediterranean context and its recent trends. Urban agricultures are defined as the activities related to food (or nonfood) production in and around the city. <br />The DAUME project considers the sustainability of these agricultures as a social process that can be analyzed in the individual strategies developed by farmers and other agricultural actors to adapt to the urban context, as well as in the projects and public policies that strengthen the relationships between agriculture and the city.
The research design of the DAUME project allows the comparison of the urban-agriculture relationships in Mediterranean cities with contrasting profiles, in Algeria, France, Italy, Morocco and Portugal. It combines local monographic case-studies and international thematic comparisons, scientific knowledge production and participatory action-research with local stakeholders. The DAUME project uses the concept of agricultural-urban system as a tool to better understand and analyze the relationships between agriculture and the city at different scales. This methodological concept fosters the interdisciplinarity between researchers with intersecting competences (agricultural and urban). An agricultural-urban system encompasses all the relationships that farmlands and agricultural activities have with the urban spaces and activities in a metropolitan area. These relationships show change in land use, farming systems, public policies and actors networks that define, manage and rule them.
The results show that, beyond the general decline of farmland in the face of urban sprawl, agricultural systems are differently influenced by the urban context. In the Mediterranean, the relationships between city and agriculture change according to three ideal-typical models: 1) the divide between agriculture and the city (observed in Constantine and Meknes), 2) the grassroots resurgence of urban agriculture in response to the economic crisis (observed in Lisbon or Athens), and 3) the increasing inclusion of urban agriculture in local projects and municipal urban policies (observed in Montpellier and Pisa).
The project leads to a high number of national and international conference presentations, sometimes directed to a larger scientific audience. 52 peer-reviewed research papers have been published (or are soon to be), while more are to come in 2016. We coordinate the edition of a book in Springer’s Urban Agriculture Book series, and of 4 journal special issues in Cahiers Agriculture (2013), Cahiers de Géographie du Quebec, RERU and Vertigo.
DAUME project studies the new forms of management and governance in periurban areas in the perspective of sustainable development. This stake is particularly acute in the Mediterranean area where urban pressure is concentrated in littoral plains, threatening agricultural spaces which are rare, fragile, and yet essential to the life of the inhabitants,. Yet these agricultural spaces are indispensable for food provision, security (floods, fires), water quality (urban rejections, water pollution), and for the safeguarding of the natural resources. Taking up these challenges requires to combine agriculture issues and urban design in practices, organizations and political projects in the long run. Project DAUME proposal is to contribute to this objective with a double glance: interdisciplinary (urban/agricultural) and international (North and South of the Mediterranean sea).
DAUME project combines two research fields: urban research one one side, agronomic and rural research of the other. From the urban point of view, the approach of durability stands on the integration of open spaces in the urban project. From the agricultural point of view, the approach of durability goes with the multi-functionality of the urban agricultural systems. DAUME measures the importance to rehabilitate the agricultural question within the theoretical frameworks of the urban question. The project crosses these two glances using the concept of sustainable agro-urban system. the durability of urban agricultures will be studied through the analysis of integrated projects implemented by private and public actors to direct urban-agriculture dynamics. This way, DAUME project follows recent scientific works which set governance as the “4th pillar” of sustainable development.
DAUME creates an international network of researchers working in the North and the South of the western part of the Mediterranean area. It joins five French teams of Cirad, Inra and CNRS, and four teams of other countries of the Mediterranean (Algeria, Italy, Morocco, Portugal).
This network addresses the analysis of the durability of urban agricultures in very contrasted social, agro ecologic, economic and political contexts. South of the Mediterranean sea, urban growth threatens agricultural autonomy of countries that already strongly depend on import of agro-alimentary food products : it addresses the stakes of food safety, reduction of poverty and natural resources management. North of the Mediterranean sea, urban sprawl is related to a « countryside need » from urban people that leads to the invention of new relationships between cities and agricultures. Here, urban agriculture is addressed for social functions, above the only productive function. The scientific program proposes an interdisciplinary and compared exploration of these stakes. It comprises four modules : (I) production of scientific and methodological frameworks; (II) analysis of agri-urban dynamic; (III) governance of integrated projects analysis; (iv) scenario planning activity in order to help public and professional stakeholders in planning and decision making. Beyond the work undertaken by the researchers, the project will lead to training courses for Master and doctorate students. Scientific results will be published, mainly through a synthesis book “what future for urban agricultures in the Mediterranean in 2030 ?
Monsieur SOULARD Christophe (INSTITUT NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE AGRONOMIQUE - CENTRE DE MONTPELLIER) – firstname.lastname@example.org
The author of this summary is the project coordinator, who is responsible for the content of this summary. The ANR declines any responsibility as for its contents.
ADES CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE - DELEGATION AQUITAINE LIMOUSIN
Ecodev INSTITUT NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE AGRONOMIQUE- CENTRE DE RECHERCHE D'AVIGNON
Innovation INSTITUT NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE AGRONOMIQUE - CENTRE DE MONTPELLIER
Metafort INSTITUT NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE AGRONOMIQUE - CENTRE DE RECHERCHE DE CLERMONT FERRAND THEIX
TETIS CENTRE DE COOPERATION INTERNATIONALE EN RECHERCHE AGRONOMIQUE POUR LE DEVELOPPEMENT - CIRAD -
Help of the ANR 802,320 euros
Beginning and duration of the scientific project: - 48 Months