BIOADAPT - Adaptation - des gènes aux populations.Génétique et biologie de l'adaptation aux stress et aux perturbations

NOvel information on the effect of drought STRESS on the cell WALL – NoStressWall

Impact of drought on plant material for biocarburants and composites

This project aims to improve our knowledge on i) the role of the cell wall in the adaptation of plants to drought or osmotic stress and ii) impacts of the stress on the parietal structure closely linked to the quality of fibers / biomass used for composites, textiles and biofuels.

The effect of the drought stress on the cell wall and plant adaptive strategies

Drought stress impacts negatively on plant growth and product quality. In the context of the climatic change, it becomes necessary to improve our understanding of strategies used by plants to adapt to this stress. In particular, we want to specify the role of the plant cell wall in this adaptation and to estimate the effects of drought on the cell wall biosynthesis and dynamics. This is a major industrial stake because the cell wall is used as fibers in textiles and composite materials and also constitutes the lignocellulosic biomass transformed into biofuel. However, our knowledge on the modifications of structure (and thus of quality) of the cell wall remains limited. This project aims to generate complete data via large-scale analyses in two species of industrial interest: flax (cellulosic fibers used for textiles/ composites) and Brachypodium as model species for grasses (biofuels).

The NoStressWall project aims to generate and integrate large amounts of transcriptome, metabolome and proteome data together with comprehensive analyses of cell wall structure and modifications induced by drought stress. Using a reverse genetics screen it will be possible also to identify specific mutants (affecting drought tolerance, specially cell wall related) in flax and Brachypodium and to characterize selected mutants. These data will be compared to results already obtained on Arabidopsis and will be used to lay the foundations for a systems biology approach to permit a global interpretation of drought adaptation strategies, molecular interaction, regulation networks, cell wall specific responses and adaptive dynamics in flax and Brachypodium.

One of the most important final products of this project will be the construction of the up-datable NoStressWall database including information on the multi-omics and cell wall analyses as well as the results of functional analyses of flax and Brachypodium mutants. A parallel monitoring of these data by different systems biology approaches will be performed in order to learn more about biologically relevant events during drought stress in both analysed species. The information will also inform us about the physiology of stress responses and adaptation strategies in higher plants.

All cultures of flax and Brachypodium were realized according to the conditions and the planned kinetics, the physiological measures were also realized for both species, and all the large-scale analyses were initialized.
Transcriptomics was finalized, metabolomics, proteomics, biochemical and miRNA analyses are in the course of finalization for both species. Histological analyses are also in the course of finalization for flax and will be realized for Brachipodium during this year.
It is planned to put all results on-line (for the end of 2014) on a database accessible to all the partners of the project and which will be in public access once the results published.
The screening by NGS required numerous improvements to adapt the MiSeq sequencing and the programs of analysis. At present the method being optimized, the screening takes place as expected, analyses are in progress.
The functional characterization of the mutants has been begun and the integration of the data as well as the systems biology analyses is planned for the end of the project.

Communications to 13th Cell Wall Meeting (Nantes, july 2013), 25th Congress of the Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society SPPS (august 2013 Helsingør, Denmark) and Réseau lin (actors of the sector, biologists, farmers, etc). Published article: Fenart et al. BMC Research Notes 2013, 6:43

Drought stress impacts negatively on plant growth and product quality and this situation will become worse because of global climatic change. It is therefore important to improve not only our understanding of strategies used by plants to adapt to this stress, but also to learn more about its impact on different plant products. A major transformable plant product is the plant cell wall composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and, in certain tissues, lignin. This resource (lignocellulosics) is transformed into biofuels and is used in bio-based materials.

In this project, we aim to produce comprehensive data via multi-scale –omics analyses on the impact of drought stress – with a major focus on the cell wall - in two plant species (flax and Brachypodium). We have chosen these 2 species because we wish to evaluate the impact of drought stress directly on two major types of valorisable cell wall structure: flax for the use of their long cellulose fibres in composite materials and textiles and Brachypodium as a model bio-fuel species system. The NoStressWall project aims to: i) generate and integrate large amounts of transcriptome, metabolome and proteome data together with comprehensive analyses of cell wall structure and modifications induced by drought stress, ii) use a reverse genetics screen to identify specific mutants in available flax and Brachypodium chemical mutant populations, and iii) initiate preliminary functional characterization of selected mutants.

One of the must important final products of this project will be the construction of the up-datable NoStressWall database including information on the multi-omics and cell wall analyses as well as the results of functional analyses of flax and Brachypodium mutants. A parallel monitoring of these data by different systems biology approaches will be performed in order to learn more about biologically relevant events during drought stress in both analysed species. The information will also inform us about the physiology of stress responses and adaptation strategies in higher plants.
The identification and functional characterization of drought-stress genes in flax and Brachypodium, together with the wide range of genetic resources/tools that are available from other projects, will accelerate plant breeding programs and allow the development of other strategies such as whole genome and targeted association mapping approaches. The proposed project is essentially fundamental but as drought stress impacts directly on flax fiber quality and Brachypodium biomass production, our results on these species will therefore be of direct interest to breeders, farmers and end-users of fibers (composite materials, textiles) and biomass.

Project coordinator

Madame Anca LUCAU-DANILA (UMR Lille1/INRA1281 Stress Abiotiques et Différenciation des Végétaux cultivés) – Anca.Lucau@univ-lille1.fr

The author of this summary is the project coordinator, who is responsible for the content of this summary. The ANR declines any responsibility as for its contents.

Partner

SADV UMR Lille1/INRA1281 Stress Abiotiques et Différenciation des Végétaux cultivés
INRA-IJPB Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin
BIOPI EA3900 Biologie des Plantes et Innovation, UPJV
MSAP USR Lille1/CNRS 3290 Miniaturisation pour la Synthèse, l'Analyse et la Protéomique
INRA URGV Unité de Recherche en Génomique Végétale

Help of the ANR 623,328 euros
Beginning and duration of the scientific project: August 2012 - 36 Months

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