In the context of an ongoing mass extinction event, wild animals are now facing the double challenge imposed by direct human alteration of their habitat as well as the indirect consequences of climate change. While research on modern populations provides data on the impact of human land use and how to compensate for it, the response of large mammals to climate change is harder to grasp and subsequently predict without a deep-time perspective. Nevertheless, the palaeontological and archaeological records provide a unique window of opportunity for researchers seeking to investigate the response of wild animals and human populations to environmental change in the long-term. The Palaeolithic is an invaluable source of insight into human – animal – environment interactions, as it provides a deep time perspective of human resilience in the face of changing resources, environmental risk, and catastrophe.
In this vein, the DeerPal project hopes to acquire new fundamental knowledge on the palaeoecology of animal communities faced with major and rapid climate changes, as well as increase our understanding of how human societies coped with these changes in the past. It focuses on the history of two large mammal species, reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus), during the Late Pleistocene epoch, prior to the advent of agriculture, when these animals were key resources to hunter-gatherer groups. At a crossroads between archaeology and palaeoecology, the DeerPal project goals are twofold:
1) To document past variability in reindeer and red deer ecological niches and behaviours and test whether variability is higher than what can be inferred from current highly anthropised ecosystems, thus providing a more complete vision of cervid ecology through an evolutionary study of their past adaptations to natural habitats.
2) To carry out a deep-time retrospective study on the impact of climatic changes on two wild mammal species that were central resources to hunter-gatherer societies, and thus provide a necessary backdrop for understanding the scale of climate changes and resource variability that human groups had to adapt to, before altering wild animal habitats.
To achieve its objectives, the DeerPal project will test, for the first time, the large-scale and simultaneous application of four state-of-the-art analytical techniques (dental microwear texture analysis, stable isotopic studies, cementochronology and 3D morphometric methods) for archaeological assemblage analysis in order to better describe the past ecology and ethology of prey communities. This integrated perspective will allow us to more fully explore human – animal – environment interactions during the Palaeolithic. Two archaeological periods with significant environmental and cultural shifts were selected for study, corresponding to two distinct research angles: the long sequences of the Middle Palaeolithic of southwestern France, for a diachronic approach, and Late Glacial sites from the Pyrenees to the Paris Basin, for a large biogeographical perspective on the response of past cervid communities to climate warming. Run by three French partner institutions with complementary equipment and expertise (TRACES - University of Toulouse Jean Jaurès, PACEA - University of Bordeaux, and Biogéosciences - University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté), the DeerPal project forms an interdisciplinary consortium that includes palaeoecologists, archaeologists and geochemists from 6 countries and 11 institutions. Specific public outreach activities will provide novel perspectives on the impact of environmental change on humans in the past to the public, dispensing a much-need historical perspective relative to what lies in our collective future.
Monsieur Emmanuel Discamps (Travaux de Recherches Archéologiques sur les Cultures, les Espaces et les Sociétés)
The author of this summary is the project coordinator, who is responsible for the content of this summary. The ANR declines any responsibility as for its contents.
TRACES Travaux de Recherches Archéologiques sur les Cultures, les Espaces et les Sociétés
PACEA DE LA PREHISTOIRE A L'ACTUEL : CULTURE, ENVIRONNEMENT ET ANTHROPOLOGIE
Help of the ANR 427,773 euros
Beginning and duration of the scientific project: January 2019 - 48 Months