DS0205 - Stockage, gestion et intégration dans les réseaux des énergies

Operando Spectroscopy and Imaging of batteries by magnetic Resonance In Situ – OSIRIS

Submission summary

Concerns regarding fossil energy reserves and carbon dioxide emissions call for optimization of our methods of creation, storage and use of energy. Both EU and France aim at increasing the share of renewables in their energy consumption, creating challenges for the energy system as a whole. Most renewable energy sources (wind, sun, waves…) are intermittent and generate large variations in the energy supply chain, which, in addition to unavoidable peaks in the demand chain, requires suppleness in the energy grids. One path to enhance flexibility in the energy system is the improvement of energy storage technology. The target is an improvement in energy density (amount of energy stored) and specific powers (charge and discharge rate) of electrochemical storage, keeping safety, reliability and cost as strong constraints.

Research is extremely active to discover new materials for batteries with higher operating voltage and higher energy storage capacities. The development of thicker electrodes is a complementary approach, but they are usually associated with poor charging rates, resulting in reliability and safety issues. Fast charging creates non-equilibrium structures that evolve quickly when the current is stopped. The real-time characterization of the mechanisms involved in these extremely reactive systems is essential to understand their origin and bring technological breakthroughs. Measurement in real time and in realistic conditions is a true challenge for all characterization techniques.

In the OSIRIS project, we offer to develop magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and imaging in real time and in working batteries. The two characterization techniques in the MR family, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), will be further developed and combined to exploit their complementarities. MR is an insightful non-destructive characterization tool highly sensitive to the local environment of its probe, complementary to other techniques. It measures the properties of magnetic moments associated with spins. EPR detects the response of electronic spins and brings precious information on the electronic structure of materials. On the other hand, NMR measures the signals of atoms bearing a nuclear spin (7Li, 6Li, 23Na, 31P…), which are very sensitive to their local environment and to dynamics. Both techniques have a spectroscopic and an imaging component, extremely complementary – while the former brings detailed information about the local environment of the nuclear/electron spin, the latter provides spatial information.

The main difficulty for NMR is the presence of paramagnetic ions (i.e. unpaired electrons) in the electrodes, at least at one stage of the charge-discharge process, making imaging and spectroscopy of whole functioning batteries challenging. The objectives of the project are three-fold: develop operando 3D-NMR spectroscopic imaging (MRI) of batteries containing paramagnetic electrodes with increased spatial resolution, increase spectral resolution for in situ NMR spectroscopy of batteries by spinning the battery at the magic angle for the first time, and produce operando hypercomplex images of batteries, for which each voxel contains the EPR and NMR spectroscopic information.

While the proposed developments focus on MR studies of battery materials, the range of applications can be extended later to a variety of solids with short-living NMR signals. This non-destructive approach could be of great help for deciphering chemical inhomogeneity in materials containing paramagnetic ions such as precious geological rocks or glass. It further paves the way to study, independently and in real time, all the constituents of devices with paramagnetic materials whether they are batteries or fuel cells or reactors involving solid-driven catalytic, crystallization or vitrification processes.

Project coordination

Elodie Salager (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Conditions Extrêmes et Matériaux: Haute Température et Irradiation)

The author of this summary is the project coordinator, who is responsible for the content of this summary. The ANR declines any responsibility as for its contents.

Partner

CNRS-CEMHTI Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Conditions Extrêmes et Matériaux: Haute Température et Irradiation

Help of the ANR 212,586 euros
Beginning and duration of the scientific project: September 2015 - 36 Months

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