TDM - Transports Durables et Mobilité

Driver - Automated Vehicle Cooperation – CoCoVeA

Driver-Vehicle Cooperation for Automated Driving

The development of automated driving, and more generally of advanced driver assistance systems interacting with the driver at the vehicle control level generates new problems of human-machine cooperation. Solving them requires to study, from the early design stage of the system, the ways the driver will interact with the system by addressing the problems of task sharing, authority, conflict management, level of automation and HMI.<br />CoCoVeA proposes and evaluates an architecture for that.<br /><br />

Development of an architecture for driver-vehicle cooperation

The consortium in the CoCoVeA project proposes:<br />• to develop a cooperative architecture between drivers and assistance systems for automated driving (sharing of vehicle control);<br />• to implement these systems on demonstrators, in driving simulators and on real vehicles;<br />• to experimentally validate the systems developed;<br />• to produce recommendations for manufacturers and OEMs.<br />

The work was divided into seven main axes constituting the workpackages of the project :
- Specifications and scenarios to define the use cases to be addressed by the project
- Design of the control sharing and of the modulation of the levels of automation
- Design of human-machine interfaces and information management mechanisms
- Acquisition / computation of vehicle, environment and driver information
- Prototyping and functional evaluation in driving simulator
- Deployment on a real vehicle
- Functional Validation Experiments
These axes have structured the implementation of a multidisciplinary approach of human-centered automation, involving skills in science and technology in conjunction with skills in the human sciences, each of which being contributed by the different partners in the consortium.

The work carried out in the CoCoVeA project allowed:
- to define a multi-level cooperation architecture allowing the interactions between the driver and the autonomous vehicle both at the vehicle control level (vehicle guidance on the defined trajectory) and at the tactical level (choice of possible maneuvers: change of lane , insertion, overtaking, etc.)
- to define the information needs of the driver to carry out his driving task according to the degree of automation (shared driving, PLC supervision, delegation, takeover)
- to define the HMI mechanisms to provide this information to the driver and to collect his instructions (visual, manual, sound and haptic modalities), depending on the context and mode involved.
- define the monitoring needs of the driver during both the manual and the delegated driving phases in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle.
- to define the mechanisms of transitions between driving modes and the conditions associated with these transitions in order to guarantee safety
- to prototype all this work in the form of an integrated system on a dynamic interactive driving simulator
- to prototype part of this work on a real vehicle
- to evaluate the prototype on the driving simulator in the context of an experiment involving a representative panel of drivers.

The CoCoVeA project demonstrated the need for close cooperation between the driver and the assistance system in order to guarantee the acceptability and safety of the autonomous vehicle. For this, a multi-level cooperation architecture was developed and prototyped on a driving simulator. The algorithms implemented in this architecture to solve the problems of control sharing, authority management, conflict resolution for decision-making have highlighted the need for a better knowledge of the «operation« of the driver.
Several axes emerge:
- The need for models of the driver describing both its decision-making and sensory-motor mechanisms. The models of the decision-making mechanisms that lead the driver to choose an alternative rather than another will make the behavior of the automatism homogeneous with the one of the driver in order to favor the acceptability of the systems. They will also advance the problem of ethics in the field of the autonomous vehicle. The sensori-motor models will allow to refine the interfaces, especially haptic ones, between driver and system, for a better safety.
- The need for advanced driver monitoring. In many driving phases, it is necessary to relate the driver's operational capabilities to the requirements of the situation. Vigilance, workload, situation awareness, attention are all essential information for the modulation of the level of automation.
Several objectives are being pursued in the ANR AutoConduct project, led by the VeDeCom Institute, for which several partners of the CoCoVeA project are participating in the consortium.

Vulgarisation conferences
Collectif (2015). CNRS – Les Innovatives, « Véhicule du futur ». Présentation des projets ABV & CoCoVeA, Paris, mars.
International journals
SOUALMI B., SENTOUH C., POPIEUL J-C., DEBERNARD S. (2014). Automation-driver cooperative driving in presence of undetected obstacles. IFAC Control Engineering Practice, 24, pp. 106–119.
NGUYEN T., LAURAIN T., PALHARES R., LAUBER J., SENTOUH C., POPIEUL J. (2016). LMI-based Control Synthesis of Constrained Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Systems Subject to L2 or L-infinity Disturbances. Neurocomputing.
NGUYEN T., SENTOUH C., POPIEUL J. (2016). Driver-Automation Cooperative Approach for Shared Steering Control under Multiple System Constraints: Design and Experiments. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. pp, issue 99.
International conferences
BOVERIE S. (2014). Conférence invitée : « Les systèmes d'assistance à la conduite automobile, exemples d'applications de la logique floue », LFA’2014, Cargèse, , 22-24 octobre.
NGUYEN T., SENTOUH C., POPIEUL J., SOUALMI B. (2015). Shared lateral control with online adaptation of the automation degree for driver steering assist system: A weighting design approach. IEEE 54th Annual Conference on Decision and Control, Osaka, Japan, pp. 857–862, décembre.
PACAUX-LEMOINE M., SIMON P., POPIEUL J. (2015). Human-Machine Cooperation principles to support driving automation systems design. 3rd International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology Toward zero traffic accidents (FAST-zero’15), Gothenburg, Sweden, septembre.
PSA (2015). Présentation à ITS Bordeaux - ITS-1883 - Human factor issues for automated driving and autonomous car, 5-9 octobre.
BENLOUCIF M., POPIEUL J., SENTOUH C. (2016). Multi-level cooperation between the driver and an automated driving system during lane change maneuver. 2016 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), Gothenburg, Sweden, pp. 1224-1229, juin.

The accumulation within the cars cockpit of assistance systems interacting with the driver via various modalities (visual, manual, tactile, sound, haptic…) jointly with the increase in the complexity of these systems (going from information to automatic driving) raises new problems of cooperation between the driver and the vehicle. Ensuring good safety conditions supposes to focus particularly on the compatibility of the whole of these systems with the vehicle guiding task, especially in terms of “comprehension of what the system does”, of “conscience of the activated modes” and of “capacity of attention and treatment” (situation awareness, workload) which they are likely to require. This is especially true during the transition phases (manual towards automatic and conversely).

These problems were particularly highlighted within the ANR-ABV project (2009-2013) in which the majority of the partners of this consortium were involved. This project of automatic driving, partly at the origin of the CoCoVeA project, showed the need for integrating at the early stages of the system design the interactions with the driver dealing with task sharing, and degree of freedom, authority, level of automation, priorisation of information and management of the various systems. This approach supposes to be able to know the state of the driver at every moment, the current driving situation, the limits of operation of the various assistance systems and starting from these data, to make a decision concerning the activation or not of one or the other system and the modulation of its degree of action.

The consortium brings competences necessary to the realization of this multidisciplinary project. PSA Peugeot Citroen, as a car manufacturer, is an expert as regards problems of integration and evaluation of embedded systems. Continental Automotive and Valeo have an important knowledge in design and development of these systems. LAMIH is an expert as regards human-machine cooperation and has an important experience in the prototyping and evaluation of driver assistance systems in simulator. SPIROPS is specialized in artificial intelligence and decision-making processes. IFSTTAR and INRIA are recognized for their work on driver assistance systems, particularly in automatic driving. UNICAEN-COMETE and AKKA have a large experience in the analysis of the state and the behavior of the driver through studies carried out in particular on the assessment of vigilance. AKKA has also an important experience in the ergonomic study of the aircraft cockpits (human factors certification) and in particular in the management of emergency situations. This competence will make it possible to widen the field of research and to capitalize on the two fields: aeronautics and car.

In addition, the partners have state-of-the-art experimental platforms which will be made available for the project, in particular the dynamic simulator of LAMIH as well as the laboratory vehicles of IFSTTAR and AKKA-INRIA.

Using these complementary competences and means, the consortium proposes:
• To develop a cooperative architecture between driver and assistance system for automatic driving (vehicle control sharing through haptics).
• To develop a prototype for the control and coordination of the systems embedded in the cockpit.
• To integrate these systems on several demonstrators in both driving simulator and real vehicles.
• To validate through an experiment the developed systems.
• To produce recommendations for the manufacturers and equipment suppliers.

Project coordinator

Monsieur Jean-Christophe Popieul (Laboratoire d'Automatique, de Mécanique et d'informatique Industrielles et Humaines (UMR CNRS 8201))

The author of this summary is the project coordinator, who is responsible for the content of this summary. The ANR declines any responsibility as for its contents.

Partner

UNICAEN Université de Caen Basse Normandie
PSA PEUGEOT CITROËN AUTOMOBILES SA
CONTINENTAL CONTINENTAL AUTOMOTIVE FRANCE
DAV SA DAV SA
AKKA AKKA Informatique et systèmes
SPIROPS SPIROPS
IFSTTAR Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l'aménagement et des réseaux
LAMIH Laboratoire d'Automatique, de Mécanique et d'informatique Industrielles et Humaines (UMR CNRS 8201)
Inria Paris - Rocquencourt Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique

Help of the ANR 892,655 euros
Beginning and duration of the scientific project: October 2013 - 42 Months

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