JCJC SIMI 9 - JCJC - SIMI 9 - Sciences de l'Ingénierie, Matériaux, Procédes et Energie

New generation of all fiber optical amplifiers with erbium and gold – AMPEROR

AMPEROR

New generation of all fiber optical amplifiers with erbium and gold

fabrication of optical fibers co-doped with gold nanoparticles and erbium ions and Study of exarcerbation of the fluorescence of the erbium by the gold nanoparticles

The aim of this project (36 months), is to determine the feasibility of a new generation of optical amplifiers based on the realization of microstructured fibers containing nanostructures Au / Er 3+. This combination of nanostructures and microstructured fibers will be considered throughout this project with such purpose : the realization of fiber amplifiers showing (i) optimization of luminescence exaltation process and amplification of the ion Er 3+ by the metallic nanostructures and (ii) obtaining fibers having optical losses contained (<0.1 dB / m at 1550 nm) by controlling the size of the nanostructures and their concentration. For this project we will use a synthesis of core shell systems Au / ZrO2 doped with Er 3+. These systems will be embedded in a silica matrix similar to conventional fibers.

To achieve this type of amplifier, we will combine various skills laboratory PhLAM: synthesis of gold nano-objects resistant to very high temperatures (including fiber drawing temperatures> 2000 ° C), preparation of porous preforms with controlled porosity by sol-gel method or MCVD, densifying the preform, optical fiber manufacturing doped with gold nanoparticles and erbium ions and spectroscopic characterizations for luminescent properties. These various skills will be shared to manufacture optical fibers whose heart is made of a glass matrix of silica doped with Au / ZrO2 nanoparticles and co-doped with erbium ions) for optical amplification. These fibers will be analyzed by optical amplification system to locate their level of performance compared to the state of the art. Two routes were chosen to carry out this type of fiber: a classical approach MCVD, which requires nanoparticles resistant to very high temperatures (> 1500 ° C) and a more innovative approach by Sol-Gel method, already used in the team for the realization of fibers doped with gold nanoparticles but with no control over the size of the nanoparticles.

Original syntheses of core-shell nanoparticles gold / zirconia have been developed to improve the thermal stability of gold nanoparticles above their melting temperature. They were then used for the production of sol-gel glasses prepared at 1200 ° C. This study has shown that we keep the gold nanoparticles in glasses. These glasses exhibit nonlinear optical properties. An article was published on the study of these properties. New successful trials were then carried out in order to obtain co-doped glasses by nanoparticles and erbium ions. These samples were sent to the Grenoble synchrotron to produce X-ray diffraction analysis that should determine the position of the gold nanoparticles compared to erbium ions.

For the synthesis of bimetallic complex (Gold / Erbium) to control the distance gold-erbium, a bifunctional original ligand was obtained with acetates but did not allow the complexation of the erbium ions.

The modeling studies of exarcerbation luminescence properties of erbium by gold nanoparticles, have shown the need to reduce the distance between the rare earth ion and the gold nanoparticle (near the nm).

We will improve the synthesis and purification of the core shell nanoparticles to obtain controlled size of nanoparticles between 1 and 10 nm before doping optical fiber preforms.
We are also currently developing a new synthesis of bi-metallic complexes (Gold / Erbium) to control the distance gold and erbium. We are developing an organometallic synthesis of erbium complex based on the functionalization of cyclen. This synthesis requires a large number of steps.
It has not been possible to obtain a doped preform with gold nanoparticles / zirconia by MCVD. This process requires a step of rapid thermal processing to 1700 ° C under a gas flow which causes the dissapearance of gold nanoparticles. Increasing the thickness of the zirconia shell hasn't solved the problem. A mixed approach, inspired by the sol-gel process will be attempted: the gold nanoparticles / zirconia will be covered by a silica gel to artificially increase the thickness of the protective layer.
The preforms co-doped sol-gel made in task 3 will be characterize by optical methods.

Lerouge, A. et al., Mater. Res. Express., 2015 (3) 015002 - doi:10.1088/2053-1591/2/5/055009
A. Pastre et al., Mater. Res. Express., 2016 (3) 015002 - doi:10.1088/2053-1591/3/1/015002

EMRS, Lille, 2015, Symposium H
2015 : GDR Nacre (Oléron)

Erbium doped silica optical fiber was a key component for the development of telecom applications over the last twenty years. The request in this field are in constant evolution, so it remains essential to develop new all-fiber components to provide functions such as all-optical signal processing or amplification spectrally broader and more effective. AMPEROR-project’s objective is the realization of new generation of all fiber optical amplifiers based on nano-objects doped with erbium ion. The presence of gold nanoparticle close to the erbium ion should improve the fluorescence and thus lead to increase the gain by length unity. Such an amplifier would offer several advantages in particular: the realization of compact systems which is a challenge in the field of integrated optics. Another important point is the reduction of the cost of the optical transmision systems by reducing the pump power used for the transmission of the signal. We are going to associate various skills of our team to realize this amplifier: synthesis of gold-based nano-object stable at high temperature, realization of preforms with controlled porosity elaborated by sol-gel process or MCVD. Then elaboration of glass and fabrication of optical fiber and finally spectroscopic characterization of the luminescence center. These additional skills will be collected to realize microstructured optical fiber including a core constituted by Silica matrix doped with nanoparticles (Au/ZrO2 doped by erbium ions) for optical amplification applications. The performance level of the fiber elaborated will be analyzed and compared with the state of art.
Two routes have been selected to perform this type of fibers: a classical approach MCVD, which requires nanoparticles resistant to very high temperatures (> 1500 °C) and a more original approach by Sol-Gel process, already used in the team for the production of fibers doped with gold nanoparticles but so far without controlling the size of nanoparticles.
This project presents great scientific and economic interest because it lies on the border of several areas: materials, telecommunications, sensors, ... Indeed, it will enable us to develop in the laboratory new knowledge firstly, in the field of the materials chemistry by realizing refractory complex nanostructures controlled in size and in composition as well as that of physics by studying the mechanisms of fluorescence and amplification exacerbation of rare-earth ions by metal species in fiber geometry.
The acquisition of these new skills will allow us to design new generations of micro and/or nano- structured fibers. The fabrication of these original fibers will be easily transferable to the other systems core/shell and to the other rare earth ions (ytterbium, for example) which will open new perspectives in the field of fiber laser sources.

Project coordination

Rémy BERNARD (laboratoire de physique des lasers atomes et molécules) – remy.bernard@univ-lille1.fr

The author of this summary is the project coordinator, who is responsible for the content of this summary. The ANR declines any responsibility as for its contents.

Partner

CNRS laboratoire de physique des lasers atomes et molécules

Help of the ANR 189,998 euros
Beginning and duration of the scientific project: February 2014 - 36 Months

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