Intelligent glassed opening system integrating solar protection and natural ventilation
Develop and experimentally validate multi-physical models of glazed openings systems to assess their impact on the performance of a building in terms of energy consumption, thermal, visual and acoustic comfort.<br />Define the choices of design of glazed openings systems based on multiple criteria.<br />Submit an aid to the decision through a parametric study .
Task 1: Review of technology of opening types
The analysis of the technical solutions of windows shows the predominance of horizontal or vertical sliding window and top-hung window . Regarding acoustic protections to be used «window open «, the analysis cocldes that it is necessary to develop new devices. First, we tested numerically device baffles (2 or 3 layers) and louvers in horizontal and vertical configurations. We conclude that 2 ranks baffles in vertical position is a good compromise between acoustics and ventilation.
Task 2: Experimentation on single-sided ventilation and cross ventilation
The tracer gas method is used with carbon dioxide (CO2) by measuring the decrease in concentration.
Task 3: Thermo-ventilation modelling by CFD and Acoustical modeling.
The results were obtained by simulation with Fluent. We used Reynolds stress model (RSM) with two structured meshes, separating the inner and outer areas, connected by compliant interfaces. The resulting mesh consists of approximately 600,000 stitches.
The condition of entry limit is based on the profile of the incident wind, and the intensity of turbulence. The output limit condition uses a pressure profile following the Boussinesq approximation.
The acoustic attenuation shutters results were achieved from the Comsol.
Task 4: Multi-physics modeling for performance evaluation
Representative simplified models have been integrated into a comprehensive model of intelligent management in TRNSYS . The algorithms proforma sheets allow the transfer on other software platforms.
Task 5: Optimizing the design and management of innovative concepts
Parametric studies are used to compare several types of management and an aid to decision is proposed .
Obtaining a satisfactory compromise between energy consumption and indoor comfort (thermal, light, acoustics and air quality) requires integration and intelligent management of the various functions of the glass surfaces, even innovative solutions to a good compromise between constraints. A study of existing technologies has been supplemented by a study of innovative design by joining the different skills present in the consortium.
For openings, two prototypes of components «breathable« are tested:
• a Plexiglas for daytime use
• An elastic foam porosity for night use.
Sounds traps using the principle of Helmotz resonator are proposed for top-hung windows.
These tests took place :
• Acoustic and daylighting to ENTPE
• ventilation in ventilation mono facade ENTPE
• cross ventilation in ventilation in the premises of the CNRS in Cargese. The tests show that using several well locateded autonomous CO2 probes gives good accuracy.
Air exchange with shutters is determined in proportion to the passage sections with respect to the value « no shutter« . Noise reduction varies between 7 and 11 dB.
For larger air flows in summer cooling, night cross ventilation is recommended.
A proposal for intelligent control of glazed openings that can be applied by fully automatic or partly managed by the occupants is built. We minimized the number of operations on blinds and windows to avoid rejection by the occupant.
Using this intelligent control, we guarantee the absence of glare and proper sound level and we obtain almost equivalent results in thermal comfort and lighting consumption to those corresponding to the natural ventilation without respect of these constraints .
This project contributes to improve scientific knowledge in the understanding of physical phenomena occurring in the glass openings and thermal ventilation, acoustics and solar gains modelling.
It contributes to the improvement of professional practices and to defining new concepts of glazed openings incorporating natural ventilation and shading optimizing thermal, visual and acoustic comfort.
E. Gourdon, Optimization of thermal and acoustical comfort : Study of the influence of the type of intelligent opening windows on the sound reduction index. 41st International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2012, INTER-NOISE 2012, 8, Contributed in12 -1062.pdf: 6873–6883.
M. Caciolo, S. Cui, P. Stabat, D. Marchio. Development of a new correlation for single-sided natural ventilation adapted to leeward conditions. Energy and Buildings, 2013,
S. Cui, E. Gourdon, R. Issoglio, P.Stabat, D. Marchio, M.El Mankibi. How far can “baffle shutters« attenuate outdoor noise while maintaining acceptable natural ventilation rates? APEC Conference. Changsha, 2013.
S. Cui, P.Stabat, D. Marchio, Influence of natural ventilation on solar gains and natural lighting by opening windows. Building simulation, 7. 2013, Chambéry.
S. Cui, J Koffi, R. Issoglio, P.Stabat, D. Marchio, M.El Mankibi. Experimental study (performance evaluation) of natural ventilation through windows with horizontal blade shutters. Indoor Air 8. 2014, Hong Kong
S. Cui, M. Cohen, P. Stabat, D. Marchio. CO2 Tracer Gas Concentration Decay Method for Measuring Air Change Rate. Building and Environment 84(2015) pp 162-169. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.11.007
J. Koffi, M. El Mankibi, E. Gourdon, R. Issoglio, A. Zoubir, Assessment of Single-sided Ventilation with acoustic Shutters on Windows. Building and Environment. In Press.
R. Issoglio, E. Gourdon, J. Koffi, M. El Mankibi, A. Zoubir, S. Cui, P. Stabat, D. Marchio. Design silencers for awning windows: modified Helmholtz resonators with perforated foam. Construction and Building Materials. In Press.
S. Cui, M. Perret-Gentil, E. Gourdon, A. Bartheme, E. Wurtz, M. El Mankibi, P. Stabat, D. Marchio. Advanced control of natural ventilation with solar and noise protection. International Conference on Advanced Building Skins, 11. 2015, Bern, Switzerland.
Today, a building must ensure low energy consumptions and good environmental quality, in terms of thermal and visual comfort, noise and indoor air quality. These constraints generate building envelope requirements that are often contradictory.
In particular, reducing the heating demand of a building requires good thermal insulation and air tightness, as well as the maximization of the solar gains. This leads to an increased risk of overheating during the warm and intermediate seasons, inducing thermal discomfort or increase of cooling consumption.
In order to reduce these negative effects, it is necessary to provide devices that reduce solar gains through glass surfaces during cooling (solar protections). However, solar protection use can reduce natural lighting, with negative effects on visual comfort or increase of artificial lighting consumption.
Openable fenestration systems can also be used to prevent overheating, by introducing outside air when it is cooler than indoor air (natural ventilation by window opening). However, window opening can generate noise problems.
As consequence, in order to obtain a satisfactory compromise between energy consumption and indoor comfort (thermal, visual and acoustic), it is necessary to correctly integrate and control the different functions of fenestration systems (smart fenestration systems). Indeed, a fenestration system appears as a key interface between the inside and outside of a building.
In practice, design and optimization of smart fenestration systems require a multi-physics approach taking into account thermal exchange, ventilation, lighting and acoustics, as well as interactions and constraints deriving from the combined operation of glazed surfaces, solar protections and openings. However, fenestration system modeling in building simulation programs does not account for the different physical phenomena involved. Thus, model development is essential to allow designers to correctly size, design and manage smart fenestration systems, in order to minimize energy consumption and maximize thermal comfort.
This research project aims to develop new knowledge about smart fenestration systems and also to improve the design and the control of these systems by means of new multiphysical models. The objectives are:
• Development and experimental validation of multi-physical models of smart fenestration systems, in order to assess their impact on commercial building performance in terms of consumption, thermal comfort, visual comfort and acoustic performance.
• Optimization of design and control based on a multicriteria approach.
As result of the research program, new multi-physics modeling tools will be available to building designers, integrated in building simulation programs such as TRNSYS and EnergyPlus. Moreover, design and control principles will be optimized for different building types and climates.
Monsieur Dominique MARCHIO (ARMINES - CEP) – email@example.com
The author of this summary is the project coordinator, who is responsible for the content of this summary. The ANR declines any responsibility as for its contents.
ENTPE-LASH Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat - Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Habitat
CEA-INES Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives - Institut National de l'Energie Solaire
ARMINES - CEP
Help of the ANR 666,790 euros
Beginning and duration of the scientific project: January 2012 - 36 Months