Design and management of green networks with low power consumption – DIMAGREEN
The face of Internet has dramatically changed over the last few years, from a small community of specialists with research and engineering needs to a space with billions of users using it in their daily life. Jupiter research expects the number of users to attain up to 1.5 billions in 2008 from 1.1 in 2006, representing a growth of 36% in only 2 years. At the same time, new applications appear, like social networking (e.g. Facebook) to share, keep the contact with friends, family or people with common interests. This new usages make network traffic drastically grows, with an expected acceleration of this trend in the near future [7,8]. For example, a recent note on clubic.com evokes the multiplication by four of the peer to peer traffic in the five next years. This increasing number of users with new needs and ways of being connected to the Internet modifies the characteristics of the network and the dynamic of traffic in the following ways: o New traffic concentrated on huge data centers: the development of search engines, large systems of video on demand (e.g. youtube), and of cloud computing, make that a large part of the traffic is concentrated on huge data centers. This phenomenon changes the topology of the Internet. This change depends on the applications deployed and used in the network with opposite effects between P2P and data center applications. o Mobility of users: the usage of mobile devices like laptops and cellular phones spreads and operators are developing multimedia applications for the new smartphones. Their users more and more require to be able to use these applications without experiencing any disruption, e.g. video streaming in a train. o Strong variation of users traffic: the video streaming of popular events and the development of social sharing create communities of users wanting to access a multimedia content. Hence, a large number of users may try to connect to the same resource at the same time. This leads to a highly dynamic traffic load and possible sharp peaks in traffic rates. Therefore new solutions have to be invented for network design and management to take into accounts these new constraints and needs. These changes have to been done in a society facing specific new challenges. A new context. With the increased cost of energy and the sharp growth of demand, the need of energy-aware solutions has appeared as an imperative for governments, companies and individuals. This thematic is also particularly relevant for the networking community. For example, as of 2006, the electricity usage attributable to the servers and data centers in the US is estimated at about 61 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh), or also 1.5% of total U.S. electricity consumption. Between 2000 and 2006, this usage more than doubled, amounting to about $4.5 billion in electricity costs. It's poised to double again by 2011. Hence a very important objective is the reduction of the energy consumption to operate and manage the existing networks, especially with the development of demanding new applications. To reduce the power consumption induced by Internet, several techniques can be studied: 1. At the hardware level: the overall consumption of the network can be reduced by technological progresses in the creation of network equipments, e.g. more efficient cooling systems or the introduction of different hardware states depending on the level of activity. 2. At the network design level: the networks need to be conceived to suite the new needs and applications of users. For example, changes in topologies and well distributed replications of the data are a way to reduce the resources used by the networks. 3. At the network management level: when the network has been already designed, new routing policies taking the power consumption into account can be introduced. During this project, we will focus mainly on the design and management of networks, as there plainly are in the scope of our competences. Finally, the main objectives of this project will be to introduce and analyze energy-aware networks. This will lead to increasing the life-span of telecommunication hardware and to reducing the energy consumption together with the electricity bill. In order to achieve the main goal of the project, we plan to propose: o New cost functions for the network devices (e.g. routers) via measures and models of their consumption in function of their load and other hardware constraints. o New tools for designing energy efficient networks, based on the analysis of the new changes of network topology. o Efficient routing policies, that takes into account the new characteristics of Internet traffic, e.g. the strong variation of user traffic.
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